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Integrated design for direct and indirect solar thermal utilization in low temperature industrial operations

Abikoye, Ben, Čuček, Lidija, Isafiade, Adeniyi Jide, Kravanja, Zdravko
Energy 2019 v.182 pp. 381-396
case studies, dairies, heat, industry, models, streams, supply balance, temperature
This work presents a flowsheet superstructure and integration possibilities for simultaneous optimization of the maximum share of attainable direct and indirect solar utilization through heat storage in industrial operations. Multi-period Mixed Integer Non-Linear Programming (MINLP) models were developed for this purpose and account for the dynamics in the profile of heat supply and demand using discrete time intervals/periods. The resulting models are applied to an industrial case study of a dairy plant for the two distinct integration alternatives of targeting one and multiple (two) cold stream utility requirements. The design and optimization of the integrated system is implemented and solved in GAMS. The results show good prospect for solar thermal utilization in industries with low temperature applications. Sensitivity analysis shows linear increase in the average attainable heat load up to certain collector area (on case-by-case basis), after which a break point is obtained where it is observed that additional increase in collector area does not result to much increase in the obtained heat load. For the selected case study of a dairy plant, average solar output of about 75 W/m2 of collector is obtained.