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Powdery mildew susceptibility of spring wheat cultivars as a major constraint on grain yield

Author:
Draz, Ibrahim Sobhy, Esmail, Samar Mohamed, Abou-Zeid, Mohamed Abd El-Halim, Essa, Tarek Abd El-Moniem
Source:
Annals of agricultural science 2019 v.64 no.1 pp. 39-45
ISSN:
0570-1783
Subject:
Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici, Triticum aestivum, breeding programs, cultivars, disease resistance, disease severity, grain yield, greenhouses, growing season, mature plants, powdery mildew, seedlings, spring wheat
Abstract:
Powdery mildew infection caused by Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici and grain yield of 23 spring wheat cultivars were investigated under controlled and natural conditions during two growing seasons (2016/17 and 2017/18). Under controlled greenhouse conditions, seedling infection types of 9 cultivars, Sids-12, Sids-13, Gemmeiza-3, Gemmeiza-10, Sakha-61, Sakha-93, Sakha-94, Giza-160 and Giza-163 revealed susceptibility to the disease, while 14 cultivars, Misr-1, Misr-2, Sids-1, Gemmeiza-1, Gemmeiza-5, Gemmeiza-7, Gemmeiza-9, Gemmeiza-11, Gemmeiza-12, Sakha-8, Sakha-69, Giza-167, Giza-168 and Giza-171 showed resistance during both seasons. In the field, adult plant infections revealed susceptibility of 8 cultivars, Gemmeiza-3, Gemmeiza-5, Gemmeiza-7, Sakha-8, Sakha-61, Sakha-93, Giza-160 and Giza-163, while 7 cultivars, Misr-2, Sids-13, Gemmeiza-11, Gemmeiza-12, Giza-167, Giza-168 and Giza-171 exhibited resistance during both seasons. These last-mentioned 7 cultivars also showed best resistance in seedling infection tests during both seasons. The highest levels of disease severity were recorded with Gemmeiza-3, Sakha-61 and Sakha-94, while the lowest ones were in Giza-167 and Giza-168 as resistant cultivars. Significant losses in grain yield (1000-kernel weight) were recorded with highly susceptible cultivars, reaching 26.68% in Gemmeiza-3, while insignificant loss was recorded with resistant cultivars, 2.06% in Giza-168. A strong positive correlation was observed between % disease severity and % loss in 1000-kernel weight, recording r = 0.9195 in the first season and r = 0.9402 in the second season. In susceptible cultivars, disease was an important yield constraint. Resistant cultivars may be incorporated in breeding programs to prevent yield losses.
Agid:
6462009