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Evaluation of cultivable aerobic bacterial flora from Russell's viper (Daboia russelii) oral cavity

Panda, Sujogya Kumar, Padhi, Laxmipriya, Sahoo, Gunanidhi
Microbial pathogenesis 2019 v.134 pp. 103573
Alcaligenes, Daboia russelii, Enterococcus, Escherichia coli, Morganella, Proteus, Providencia, Pseudomonas, Salmonella, Staphylococcus, accidents, amikacin, antibiotic resistance, azithromycin, bacteria, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, etiological agents, gentamicin, imipenem, methicillin, mouth, norfloxacin, nucleotide sequences, oxacillin, phylogeny, ribosomal RNA, secondary infection, snake bites, snakes, streptomycin, virulent strains
Snake mouths contain a wide range of bacteria. Identifying these bacteria in snakes is very important to obtain an understanding of the etiological agents of secondary infections that may result from accidents during handling and/or snake bites. The present study aims to determine the pattern of oral bacterial flora of nine healthy Russell's vipers (Daboia russelii), and their susceptibility to common antibiotics. A total of 94 isolates were obtained in pure form, which demonstrated noticeable colony characteristics and which were further studied with several biochemical tests. The strains that showed distinctive colonies, morphology and biochemical parameters were additionally subjected to phylogenetic characterization using 16S rRNA gene sequences. Furthermore, all these isolates were studied for antibiotic susceptibility. The oral cavity of the Russell's viper harbors a wide range of pathogenic bacteria, including Gram-negative genera: Proteus sp., Pseudomonas sp., Salmonella sp., Providencia sp., Alcaligenes sp., Morganella sp., as well as E. coli, and Gram-positive genera: Bacillus and Enterococcus sp., Staphylococcus sp. and Lysinobacillus sp. Most of the isolates were resistant to antibiotics viz. penicillin, Amoxyclav, oxacillin, methicillin and streptomycin while sensitive towards imipenem, amikacin, norfloxacin, gatifloxacin, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol and azithromycin. The present study documents diverse bacteria predominant in the oral cavity of Daboia russelii and studied their antibiotic susceptibilities.