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Aluminum in infant formulas commercialized in Brazil: Occurrence and exposure assessment

de Paiva, Esther Lima, Milani, Raquel Fernanda, Morgano, Marcelo Antonio, Arisseto-Bragotto, Adriana Pavesi
Subtropical plant science 2019 v.82 pp. 103230
additives, aluminum, breast milk, children, commercialization, exposure assessment, gastrointestinal system, infant formulas, markets, milk, neonates, raw materials, spectroscopy, toxicity, Brazil
Considering the immaturity of babies’ gastrointestinal system, particularly those of newborn infants, elevated aluminum (Al) concentrations can be toxic, and exposure to this contaminant due to the substitution of breast milk by infant formulae may represent a risk. The main sources of Al contamination in these products include the variability in the raw material (milk or soy), the formula composition, the contamination during processing and the presence of additives or mineral supplements. However, there are few recent reports in the literature on the occurrence of Al in milk-based or soy-based infant formulae. Thus, the aim of the present work was to study the presence of Al in samples of infant formulae acquired on the local market in Campinas, Sao Paulo, Brazil and estimate children exposure to this element. The Al contents were determined using optical emission spectrometry with an inductively coupled plasma source. The results obtained presented maximum values of 1.46, 5.94 and 4.49 mg kg−1 for starter, follow-up and specialized formulae, respectively. As from these data, it was estimated that the consumption of infant formulae (0–6 months) could reach 22.4% of the Al tolerable weekly intake (TWI), whereas a maximum value of 29.4% was observed for children between 12–24 months. The results obtained in this study show that the Al levels in infant formulae could suggest a potential concern for infants, and should therefore be monitored.