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First molecular identification of Strongyloides vituli in cattle in Japan and insights into the evolutionary history of Strongyloides parasites of ruminants

Ko, Phoo Pwint, Sakaguchi, Kohei, Yoshida, Ayako, Maruyama, Haruhiko, Nonaka, Nariaki, Nagayasu, Eiji
Parasitology international 2019 v.72 pp. 101937
Strongyloides venezuelensis, barns, calves, cytochrome-c oxidase, dairy farming, death, deworming, eggs, feces, genes, genetic markers, genetic relationships, mitochondria, nucleotide sequences, parasites, phylogeny, rats, ribosomal DNA, ribosomal proteins, sympatry, Japan
Traditionally, Strongyloides nematode infecting cattle had been thought to be a single species, S. papillosus. Surprisingly, Eberhardt et al. in 2008 reported two, rather than one Strongyloides species infected cattle, with one being S. papillosus and the other S. vituli. However, there was no subsequent report to support their findings.In July 2018, a case of a sudden death of a calf believed to be due to heavy infection with S. papillosus at a dairy farm in Miyazaki Prefecture, Japan, was reported. One month after the initiation of a deworming program to prevent further sudden deaths, fecal specimens from 24 cattle housed in the same barn were examined. Eight samples were positive for Strongyloides eggs. For species determination, the nucleotide sequences of 18S rDNA (small subunit ribosomal DNA gene), rpl-10 (ribosomal protein L10 gene), and mitochondrial (mt) cox1 (cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene) were obtained. Typing data for all three marker genes indicated the presence of both species, S. papillosus and S. vituli, in the fecal samples. To our knowledge, this study is the first to support the original report by Eberhardt et al. regarding the sympatric existence of S. papillosus and S. vituli in cattle, and to report the presence of S. vituli in Japan.Interestingly, phylogenetic analyses of both rpl-10 and mt cox1 sequences indicated a closer genetic relationship of S. vituli with S. venezuelensis (Strongyloides of rats) than with S. papillosus, shedding light on the speciation history of Strongyloides nematodes.