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Optimization and validation of headspace solid-phase microextraction method coupled with gas chromatography–triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry for simultaneous determination of volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds in coking wastewater treatment plant
- Saber, Ayman N., Zhang, Haifeng, Yang, Min
- Environmental monitoring and assessment 2019 v.191 no.7 pp. 411
- BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene), additives, desorption, detection limit, exposure duration, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, headspace analysis, industrial wastewater, pH, phenols, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, solid phase microextraction, standard deviation, tandem mass spectrometry, temperature, volatile organic compounds, wastewater treatment
- Industrial wastewater could be an important source for the emission of volatile (VOCs) and semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs), but little is known about it. In this study, a method for the identification and quantitation of 43 VOCs and SVOCs in coking wastewater was developed using a solvent-free equilibrium extraction method on the basis of headspace solid-phase microextraction accompanied by gas chromatography–triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS/MS). To ensure good extraction efficiency, the parameters that have an effect on the HS-SPME-GC-MS/MS process were carefully optimized, in terms of fiber exposure time and temperature, pH, salt additives, sample volume, and desorption time. The HS-SPME method showed good linearity range with coefficients of determination (R²) ≥ 0.991 and achieving a satisfactory recoveries value (70–120%) with good relative standard deviations (RSDs) < 20% (precision). Furthermore, the purposed approach proved to be sensitive with low detection limits, where the values ranged from 0.03 to 3.01 μg/L. The real sample analysis result showed that 43 of VOCs and SVOCs were detected in raw coking wastewater, with 3-cresol as the dominant ones. Further, the method revealed that seven phenols, 11 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and five BTEX were detected even in the treated effluent. In conclusion, the HS-SPME method developed in this study is simple in sample preparation, convenient, sensitive, and could satisfy the requirement of the analysis of VOCs and SVOCs in coking wastewater.