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Marine shell industrial wastes–an abundant source of chitin and its derivatives: constituents, pretreatment, fermentation, and pleiotropic applications-a revisit

Suryawanshi, N., Jujjavarapu, S. E., Ayothiraman, S.
International journal of environmental science and technology 2019 v.16 no.7 pp. 3877-3898
biopolymers, calcium carbonate, carotenoids, cellulose, chitin, coasts, feed supplements, feeds, fermentation, industrial applications, microwave radiation, proteins, seafood waste, ultrasonic treatment
Unscientific dumping of shellfishery waste is a major environmental concern worldwide and a serious threat to the coastal area. The shell wastes constitute of many commercially valuable products, such as, chitin, calcium carbonate, proteins, and carotenoids. Processing of shell wastes is a source of wealth. Chitin is one of the constituents of the shell wastes and also the most abundant biopolymer next to the cellulose. Calcium carbonate and proteins are the other valuable constituents of the shell wastes and can serve as a better animal feed supplement. Extraction of chitin and other valuable products from a complex mixture is cumbersome and requires consecutive pretreatment processes. Both chemical and fermentation routes of pretreatment strategies have been adopted to extract the chitin from the shell wastes, which are critically reviewed with their merits and demerits. The application of process intensification techniques, such as ultrasonication and microwave radiation, is also emphasized along with the recent advancement in the field of pretreatment processes. Pleiotropic industrial applications of chitin and its analogues are also discussed.