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Manipulation of spermatogonial stem cells in livestock species

Savvulidi, Filipp, Ptacek, Martin, Savvulidi Vargova, Karina, Stadnik, Ludek
Journal of animal science and biotechnology 2019 v.10 no.1 pp. 46
artificial insemination, biotechnology, cell culture, cryopreservation, genomics, large farms, livestock, livestock breeding, rodents, spermatozoa, stem cells, transgenesis
We are entering an exciting epoch in livestock biotechnology during which the fundamental approaches (such as transgenesis, spermatozoa cryopreservation and artificial insemination) will be enhanced based on the modern understanding of the biology of spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) combined with the outstanding recent advances in genomic editing technologies and in vitro cell culture systems. The general aim of this review is to outline comprehensively the promising applications of SSC manipulation that could in the nearest future find practical application in livestock breeding. Here, we will focus on 1) the basics of mammalian SSC biology; 2) the approaches for SSC isolation and purification; 3) the available in vitro systems for the stable expansion of isolated SSCs; 4) a discussion of how the manipulation of SSCs can accelerate livestock transgenesis; 5) a thorough overview of the techniques of SSC transplantation in livestock species (including the preparation of recipients for SSC transplantation, the ultrasonographic-guided SSC transplantation technique in large farm animals, and the perspectives to improve further the SSC transplantation efficiency), and finally, 6) why SSC transplantation is valuable to extend the techniques of spermatozoa cryopreservation and/or artificial insemination. For situations where no reliable data have yet been obtained for a particular livestock species, we will rely on the data obtained from studies conducted in rodents because the knowledge gained from rodent research is translatable to livestock species to a great extent. On the other hand, we will draw special attention to situations where such translation is not possible.