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Comparing dietary and non-dietary source contribution of BPA and DEHP to prenatal exposure: A Catalonia (Spain) case study
- Martínez, M.A., Rovira, J., Prasad Sharma, R., Nadal, M., Schuhmacher, M., Kumar, V.
- Environmental research 2018 v.166 pp. 25-34
- bisphenol A, breathing, case studies, diet, dosimetry, dust, endocrine-disrupting chemicals, fetus, ingestion, maternal exposure, models, oral exposure, pharmacokinetics, phthalates, pregnancy, pregnant women, surveys, Spain
- Bisphenol A (BPA) and Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) are two wide spread chemicals classified as endocrine disruptors (ED). The present study aims to estimate the non-dietary (dermal, non-dietary ingestion and inhalation) exposure to BPA and DEHP for a pregnant women cohort. In addition, to assess the prenatal exposure for the fetus, a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model was used. It was adapted for pregnancy in order to assess the internal dosimetry levels of EDs (BPA and DEHP) in the fetus. Estimates of exposure to BPA and DEHP from all pathways along with their relative importance were provided in order to establish which proportion of the total exposure came from diet and which came from non-dietary exposures. In this study, the different oral dosing scenarios (dietary and non-dietary) were considered keeping inhalation as a continuous exposure case. Total non-dietary mean values were 0.002 µg/kgbw/day (0.000; 0.004 µg/kgbw/day for 5th and 95th percentile, respectively) for BPA and 0.597 µg/kgbw/day (0.116 µg/kgbw/day and 1.506 µg/kgbw/day for 5th and 95th percentile, respectively) for DEHP. Indoor environments and especially dust ingestion were the main non-dietary contributors to the total exposure of BPA and DEHP with 60% and 81%. However, as expected, diet showed the higher contribution to total exposure with > 99.9% for BPA and 63% for DEHP. Although diet was considered the primary source of exposure to BPA and phthalates, it must be taken into account that with non-dietary sources the first-pass metabolism is lacking, so these may be of equal or even higher toxicological relevance than dietary sources.The present study is in the framework of “Health and environmental-wide associations based on large population surveys” (HEALS) project (FP7–603946).