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Multiple-metal exposure, diet, and oxidative stress in Uruguayan school children

Kordas, Katarzyna, Roy, Aditi, Vahter, Marie, Ravenscroft, Julia, Mañay, Nelly, Peregalli, Fabiana, Martínez, Gabriela, Queirolo, Elena I.
Environmental research 2018 v.166 pp. 507-515
DNA, antioxidants, arsenic, ascorbic acid, atomic absorption spectrometry, cadmium, diet recall, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, fruits, high performance liquid chromatography, hydrides, lead, models, oxidative stress, school children, specific gravity, toxicity, urine, vegetable consumption, zinc
Oxidative stress (OS) is an important consequence of exposure to toxic metals but it is unclear to what extent low-level metal exposures contribute to OS in children. We examined the cross-sectional association between urinary concentrations of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), and lead (Pb) and urinary markers of OS: F2–8α isoprostane and 8-hydroxy-2-deoxy-guanosine (8-OHdG). We also tested effect modification by dietary intakes. Of the 211 children aged 6–8 years living in Montevideo who were eligible for the study because they had at least one OS marker measured via ELISA, 143 were included in a complete-case analysis. Urinary metals were measured with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS: Pb, Cd) and high-performance liquid chromatography online with hydride generation ICP-MS (As-metabolites); concentrations were log2-transformed. All urinary markers were adjusted for specific gravity of urine. Two 24-h dietary recalls were conducted to estimate children's dietary intakes, including total fruit and vegetable consumption and vitamin C, zinc and fiber intake. Ordinary least square (OLS) and weighted quantile sum (WQS) regressions were used to estimate the association between metals and each OS marker as outcome. Metal exposure was generally low: median urinary As, Cd, Pb 9.6 μg/L, 0.06 μg/L and 1.9 μg/L, respectively. Median 8-isoprostane concentration was 1.1 and 8-OHdG 39.6 ng/mL. Log2-transformed urinary As concentrations were positively associated with 8-OHdG concentrations (10.90 [3.82, 17.97]) in covariate-adjusted OLS models which also took account of exposure to Cd and Pb. In WQS, a mixture index was also associated with higher 8-OHdG (8.71 [1.12, 16.3] for each 25% increase in index value), mostly driven by As exposure. There was little evidence of effect modification by dietary antioxidants. In sum, even at low-level, As exposure is associated with detectable oxidative damage to the DNA.