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Relation between periodontal disease and systemic diseases in dogs

Pereira dos Santos, José Diogo, Cunha, Eva, Nunes, Telmo, Tavares, Luís, Oliveira, Manuela
Research in veterinary science 2019 v.125 pp. 136-140
bacteremia, biofilm, breeds, dog diseases, dogs, gender, linear models, morbidity, mortality, pathogenesis, periodontal diseases, retrospective studies, risk factors, tissues
Periodontal disease (PD) is one of the most frequent and widespread inflammatory diseases in dogs. The onset of PD pathogenesis is prompted by the dental microbial biofilm combined with the animal immune-inflammatory response. Along with local effects, systemic consequences can occur secondary to dental plaque-associated bacteraemia, affecting distant tissues and organs. The main goal of this retrospective study was to access and evaluate the association between PD and systemic consequences (renal, hepatic and cardiac) in a group of 136 dogs. Clinical records of all animals were assessed for general and systemic information, further analysed by general linear model and Odds-Ratio.Animals were organized in two groups, PD group and control group, formed by animals without PD. In this population, increasing age was proven to be a risk factor (OR = 1.04, p < .01) for PD establishment. Small breeds (<10 Kg) were the most prevalent in the PD group, being more susceptible to this disease. On the other hand, no influence of gender or reproductive status in PD progression was observed. Regarding systemic diseases, a statistically significant association (p = .026) was obtained between PD and cardiac disease.Results show that PD can have a significant adverse impact on animals' health, being related with systemic consequences, which may increase morbidity and mortality rates of these animals. PD prevention, with focus on owner's information about this disease and its management, are essential points for an active PD control program.