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Detection of DNA 3'-phosphatase activity based on exonuclease III-assisted cascade recycling amplification reaction

Zhang, Yuan, Wang, Yue, Rizvi, Syed Faheem Askari, Zhang, Yida, Zhang, Yintang, Liu, Xiaoyan, Zhang, Haixia
Talanta 2019 v.204 pp. 499-506
DNA, alkaline phosphatase, biomedical research, biosensors, detection limit, drugs, enzyme activity, fluorescence, fluorescent dyes, magnetism, moieties, pathogenesis, phosphates, polymerization, therapeutics
DNA 3'-phosphatase is an essential enzyme, which plays a pivotal role in repairing DNA damage. The peculiar activity of DNA 3'-phosphatase has been proved to associate with a variety of human pathologies. Therefore, sensitive determination of DNA 3'-phosphatase is necessary for clinical diagnosis and therapy. Here, we develop a simple, sensitive, and specific fluorescent biosensor including three DNA chains of hairpin DNA1, hairpin DNA2 and fluorescence probe DNA (FP) for detecting the activity of DNA 3'-phosphatase. First, biotin-modified hairpin DNA1 binds with streptavidin-modified magnetic beads (MB) to get MB-DNA1. DNA 3'-phosphatase can hydrolyze phosphate groups on MB-DNA1 to form hydroxyl groups, which leads to the polymerization extension and nicking endonuclease cleavage reaction to obtain the trigger DNA1 fragment (tDNA1). Next, two cyclic amplification reactions are designed. In cycle I, the tDNA1 hybridizes with the hairpin DNA2, which leads the hairpin structure of DNA2 opened and the fluorescence signal of 6-carboxy-fluorescein (FAM) labeled on hairpin DNA2 turned on. This cyclic reaction is amplified by exonuclease III (Exo III). At the same time, the trigger DNA2 fragment (tDNA2) is obtained. In cycle II, similarly, the tDNA2 hybridizes with FP. Thus, the fluorescence signal of FAM labeled on FP released, which multiplies with the fluorescence signal from cycle I. Finally, this strategy is applied to determine two typical DNA 3'-phosphatases including T4 polynucleotide kinase (T4 PNK) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) with the detection limit (LOD) of 0.0033 and 0.00037 U/mL, respectively. The method provides a promising platform to evaluate the DNA 3'-phosphatase activity in the complicated biological samples and can be potentially applied in the relevant fields such as biomedical research, drug discovery and clinical diagnosis.