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Diverse expression regulation of Hsp70 genes in scallops after exposure to toxic Alexandrium dinoflagellates

Hu, Boyang, Li, Moli, Yu, Xiaohan, Xun, Xiaogang, Lu, Wei, Li, Xu, Li, Yajuan, Lou, Jiarun, Wang, Shi, Zhang, Lingling, Cheng, Jie, Hu, Xiaoli, Bao, Zhenmin
Chemosphere 2019 v.234 pp. 62-69
Alexandrium catenella, Alexandrium minutum, Azumapecten farreri, Mizuhopecten yessoensis, abiotic stress, algae, algal blooms, evolution, functional diversity, functional properties, genes, heat shock proteins, hepatopancreas, kidneys, neurotoxins, paralytic shellfish toxins, scallops, toxicity, China
Heat shock proteins 70KD (Hsp70s) are highly conserved molecular chaperones with essential roles against biotic and abiotic stressors. Marine bivalves inhabit highly complex environments and could accumulate paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs), the well-noted neurotoxins generated during harmful algal blooms. Here, we systematically analyzed Hsp70 genes (CfHsp70s) in Zhikong scallop (Chlamys farreri), an important aquaculture mollusk in China. Sixty-five CfHsp70s from eight sub-families were identified, and 47 of these genes showed expansion in the Hspa12 sub-family. After exposure to different PST-producing dinoflagellates, Alexandrium minutum and Alexandrium catenella, diverse CfHsp70s regulation presented in scallop hepatopancreas, mainly accumulating incoming PSTs, and kidneys, transforming PSTs into higher toxic analogs. All the up-regulated CfHsp70s were from CfHsp70B2, CfHspa12, and CfHspa5 sub-families. CfHsp70B2 sub-family was mainly induced in the hepatopancreas, and CfHspa12 sub-family was highly induced in the kidneys. CfHsp70s up-regulation under two dinoflagellates exposure was stronger in the kidneys (log2FC: 19.5 and 18.6) than that in hepatopancreas (log2FC: 4.3 and 6.1). Exposure to different Alexandrium species had varying effects, that in hepatopancreas, CfHsp70B2s were chronically induced only after A. catenella exposure, whereas in kidney, CfHspa12s were more acutely induced after exposure of A. minutum than A. caenella. Moreover, in Yesso scallops (Patinopecten yessoensis), only Hspa12s were up-regulated in hepatopancreas after A. catenella exposure, and all the Hsp70B2s were down-regulated. These organ-, toxin-, and species-dependent Hsp70 regulation suggested the functional diversity of duplicated Hsp70s in response to the stress by PST-producing algae. Our findings provide insights into the evolution and functional characteristics of Hsp70s in scallops.