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Characterization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs) source profiles in urban PM2.5 fugitive dust: A large-scale study for 20 Chinese cites

Gong, Xuesong, Shen, Zhenxing, Zhang, Qian, Zeng, Yaling, Sun, Jian, Ho, Steven Sai Hang, Lei, Yali, Zhang, Tian, Xu, Hongmei, Cui, Song, Huang, Yu, Cao, Junji
The Science of the total environment 2019 v.687 pp. 188-197
adults, benzo(a)pyrene, biomass, burning, carcinogenicity, cement, children, cities, coal, combustion, dust, gasoline, iron, molecular weight, neoplasms, particulate emissions, particulates, pollution, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, risk, China
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in road dust (RD) and construction dust (CD) in PM2.5 were quantified in the samples collected in 20 Chinese cities. The PAHs profiles in urban PM2.5 fugitive dusts were determined and their potential health risks were evaluated. Seven geographical regions in China were identified as northwest China (NWC), the North China Plain (NCP), northeast China (NEC), central China (CC), south China (SC), southwest China (SWC), and east China (EC). The overall average concentrations of total quantified PAHs (ΣPAHs) were 23.2 ± 18.9 and 22.8 ± 29.6 μg·g−1 in RD and CD of PM2.5, indicating that severe PAHs pollution to urban fugitive dusts in China. The differences of ΣPAHs between RD and CD were minor in northern and central regions of China but much larger in southern and east regions. The ƩPAHs for RD displayed a pattern of “high in northern and low in southern”, and characterized by large abundance of high molecular weights (HMWs) PAHs, indicating that vehicle emission was the predominant pollution origin. Additionally, higher diagnostic ratios of fluoranthene/(fluoranthene + pyrene) in NCP, CC, and SWC suggest critical contributions of biomass burning and coal combustion for RD in these areas. In comparison, gasoline combustion was the major pollution source for CD PAHs in NWC, NCP, NEC, and CC, whereas industrial emissions such as cement production and iron smelting had strong impacts in the heavy industrial regions. The total benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) carcinogenic potency concentrations (BaPTEQ) for RD and CD both showed the lowest in SC (0.05 and 0.07, respectively) and the highest in NCP (10.99 and 7.67, respectively). The highest and lowest incremental life cancer risks (ILCR) were found in NCP and SC, coinciding with the spatial distributions of ambient PAHs levels. The total CD-related cancer risks for adults and children (~10−4) suggest high potential health risks in NCP, SWC, and NWC, whereas the evaluated values in EC and SC indicate virtual safety (≤10−6).