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Preclinical safety of ginsenoside compound K: Acute, and 26-week oral toxicity studies in mice and rats

Gao, Yonglin, Wang, Tong, Wang, Guangfei, Li, Guisheng, Sun, Chengfeng, Jiang, Zhumao, Yang, Jianrong, Li, Yanshen, You, Yanli, Wu, Xuran, Sun, Liqin, Wang, Hongbo, Li, Chunmei, Tian, Jingwei, Zhu, Jing, Wang, Kezhou, Cho, Susan
Food and chemical toxicology 2019 v.131 pp. 110578
acute toxicity, alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, body weight, eating habits, females, fur, ginsenosides, hepatotoxicity, histopathology, hydrolysates, kidneys, liver, males, mice, mortality, necrosis, nephrotoxicity, no observed adverse effect level, rats, signs and symptoms (animals and humans), soil bacteria, toxicity testing, urinalysis, weight loss
Ginsenoside compound K (CK) is a hydrolysate of ginsenosides in the soil bacteria. This study evaluated the toxicity of CK as acute and the 26-week repeated-dose. The results of acute toxicity show that CK administered orally to rats and mice did not cause mortality or toxicity at the maximum dosage of 8 g/kg and 10 g/kg, respectively. In the toxicity study for 26-week, rats were administered with CK at doses of 13, 40, or 120 mg/kg, and were observed for 26 weeks and recovery periods of four weeks. Under the conditions, asthenia, hypoactivity, loss of fur and body weight reduction were transiently noticed in males of 120 mg/kg group. Hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity also were evident including the elevation of liver and kidney relative weight, along with focal liver necrosis as well as the increase in plasma enzymes (ALT and ALP) in male rats receiving CK (120 mg/kg), but this toxicity might be reversible. For 13 and 40 mg/kg CK groups, there was no significant variation in food habits, clinical signs, urine analysis, body weight, biochemical and hematological values, organ coefficient and histopathology examination. The NOAEL for male and female rats were observed to be 40 and 120 mg/kg, respectively.