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Horticultural performance of ‘Marinada’ and ‘Vairo’ almond cultivars grown on a genetically diverse set of rootstocks

Lordan, Jaume, Zazurca, Lourdes, Maldonado, Marta, Torguet, Laura, Alegre, Simó, Miarnau, Xavier
Scientia horticulturae 2019 v.256 pp. 108558
agronomic traits, almonds, climate, cultivars, dwarfing, early development, genotype, high density planting, horticulture, hybrids, mechanical harvesting, new variety, plant density, ripening, rootstocks, seeds, selfing, trees, vigor
Evolution of almond planted area and production has been mainly due to the arrival of new cultivars and rootstocks that have contributed to improve agronomic characters such as yield, precocity and efficiency. In recent years, new cultivars that have contributed to provide late blooming time and self-fertility, and with ease to adapt for mechanical harvest and high-density are becoming available. However, there is scarcity of studies where the interaction of these new cultivars with hybrid rootstocks has been tested. The aim of this study was to assess the performance of Cadaman®, Garnem®, INRA GF-677, IRTA-1, IRTA-2, Ishtara®, Adesoto, Rootpac® 20, Rootpac® 40, and Rootpac® R rootstocks with two promising almond cultivars such as ‘Marinada’ and ‘Vairo’. Bloom and nut ripening dates were affected by rootstock genotype. Both ‘Marinada’ and ‘Vairo’ cultivars showed low biennial bearing, with some differences among rootstocks, with IRTA-2 and Adesoto inducing the lowest values. On the other hand, Adesoto had higher number of suckers than the rest of the rootstocks. Garnem® provided the biggest trees, followed by Cadaman®, and then a third group which comprised IRTA-2 and INRA GF-677. Rootpac® 20 was the most dwarfing rootstock, followed by IRTA-1, Adesoto, Ishtara®, Rootpac® R, and Rootpac® 40. In terms of yield efficiency and partitioning index, IRTA-1, INRA GF-677, and Rootpac® R were the ones with higher values. Differences in tree volume and vigor for these rootstocks suggested that INRA GF-677 would be a suitable rootstock for low-medium planting densities with wide spacings; whereas Rootpac® R and IRTA-1 would be suitable rootstocks for medium- and high-density plantings. Findings of this study showed dramatic differences in tree vigor, yield, kernel weight, yield efficiency, and partitioning index, which provide a wide range of options to deem for each cultivar in a particular climate and management.