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Using multi-fractal and joint multi-fractal methods to characterize spatial variability of reconstructed soil properties in an opencast coal-mine dump in the Loess area of China
- Wang, Fengjiao, Wang, Jinman, Wang, Yu
- Catena 2019 v.182 pp. 104111
- clay, clay fraction, coal, loess, mining, organic matter, particle size distribution, sand, sand fraction, silt fraction, soil depth, soil sampling, total nitrogen, China
- Opencast coal mining activities have significant effects on the reconstructed soil properties, including its physical, chemical and biological properties. To assess the effects of opencast mining and associated dumping activities on reconstructed soil properties, the spatial variability of soil properties, i.e., soil particle size distribution (PSD), organic matter (OM) and total nitrogen (TN), in an inner dump after dumping and before reclamation in Antaibao opencast coal-mine of Shanxi Pingshuo was analyzed using multi-fractal and joint multi-fractal methods. Soil samples at 78 sampling sites at the depths of 0–20 cm and 20–40 cm were collected using an auger. The singularity spectra of soil properties in the study area were analyzed, and three multi-fractal parameters (i.e., D1, D2 and ∆α) were calculated. The singularity spectra and multi-fractal parameters can quantitatively characterize the spatial variability of soil PSD, OM and TN. The variability of soil PSD, OM and TN at the depth of 20–40 cm was higher than that at the depth of 0–20 cm. At same soil depth, the sand and clay contents showed relatively high spatial variability, and the silt content, OM and TN exhibited relatively low spatial variability. The spatial variability in sand content, OM and TN between 0 and 20 cm and 20–40 cm depths had a relatively high correlation, while the clay and silt contents at the depths of 0–20 cm and 20–40 cm showed a relatively low correlation. Multi-fractal and joint multi-fractal methods exhibited more advantages in characterizing spatial variability of reconstructed soil properties. This study provided a theoretical basis for the soil sampling optimization of in the opencast coal-mine dump in the Loess area of China.