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Scanning electrochemical microscopy in the development of enzymatic sensors and immunosensors

Morkvenaite-Vilkonciene, Inga, Ramanaviciene, Almira, Kisieliute, Aura, Bucinskas, Vytautas, Ramanavicius, Arunas
Biosensors & bioelectronics 2019 v.141 pp. 111411
alkaline phosphatase, enzyme activity, glucose oxidase, immunoassays, immunosensors, peroxidase, scanning electrochemical microscopy
Scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) is very useful, non-invasive tool for the analysis of surfaces pre-modified with biomolecules or by whole cells. This review focuses on the application of SECM technique for the analysis of surfaces pre-modified with enzymes (horseradish peroxidase, alkaline phosphatase and glucose oxidase) or labelled with antibody-enzyme conjugates. The working principles and operating modes of SECM are outlined. The applicability of feedback, generation-collection and redox competition modes of SECM on surfaces modified by enzymes or labelled with antibody-enzyme conjugates is discussed. SECM is important in the development of miniaturized bioanalytical systems with enzymes, since it can provide information about the local enzyme activity. Technical challenges and advantages of SECM, experimental parameters, used enzymes and redox mediators, immunoassay formats and analytical parameters of enzymatic SECM sensors and immunosensors are reviewed.