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Genetic and Biochemical Mechanisms for Bacterial Lipid A Modifiers Associated with Polymyxin Resistance
- Zhang, Huimin, Srinivas, Swaminath, Xu, Yongchang, Wei, Wenhui, Feng, Youjun
- Trends in biochemical sciences 2019
- Vibrio cholerae O1, antimicrobial peptides, biochemical mechanisms, biotypes, colistin, lipid A, pathogens, public health, transferases
- Polymyxins are a group of detergent-like antimicrobial peptides that are the ultimate line of defense against carbapenem-resistant pathogens in clinical settings. Polymyxin resistance primarily originates from structural remodeling of lipid A anchored on bacterial surfaces. We integrate genetic, structural, and biochemical aspects of three major types of lipid A modifiers that have been shown to confer intrinsic colistin resistance. Namely, we highlight ArnT, a glycosyltransferase, EptA, a phosphoethanolamine transferase, and the AlmEFG tripartite system, which is restricted to EI Tor biotype of Vibrio cholerae O1. We also discuss the growing family of mobile colistin resistance (MCR) enzymes, each of which is analogous to EptA, and which pose great challenges to global public health.