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Electrochemical mercury biosensors based on advanced nanomaterials

Liu, Tao, Chu, Zhenyu, Jin, Wanqin
Journal of materials chemistry B 2019 v.7 no.23 pp. 3620-3632
biosensors, electrochemistry, heavy metals, mercury, nanomaterials, pollution, toxicity
Mercury ion (Hg²⁺) is a typical heavy metal ion that shows strong toxicity and readily accumulates in the human body; it is a source of severe pollution in ecological systems. The detection of trace Hg²⁺ is an active research area for developing accurate and sensitive electrochemical biosensors. Recently, numerous novel nanomaterials have been successfully designed with remarkable advantages in Hg²⁺ recognition due to their strong electrocatalysis, specific surface areas, conductivities, etc. This review aims to present the latest progress in advanced nanomaterials for electrochemical Hg²⁺ detection. Emphasis will be given to the main detection mechanisms and nanostructure control methodology of these nanomaterials. Meanwhile, the performance of various nanomaterials-based mercury biosensors will be compared to discuss their positive effects on the detection performance of different nanostructures. This article is expected to provide inspiration for the design of novel nanomaterials to construct high-performance electrochemical mercury biosensors.