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Total and lean fish intake is positively associated with bone mineral density in older women in the community-based Hordaland Health Study

Rosendahl-Riise, Hanne, Karlsson, Therese, Drevon, Christian A., Apalset, Ellen M., Nygård, Ottar K., Tell, Grethe S., Dierkes, Jutta
European journal of nutrition 2019 v.58 no.4 pp. 1403-1413
bone density, bone health, cross-sectional studies, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, fatty fish, fish consumption, food frequency questionnaires, lean fish, men, nutrients, women, Norway
PURPOSE: Fish is a source of various nutrients beneficial for bone health, but few studies have investigated the association between bone mineral density (BMD) and fish consumption. Thus, the aim was to investigate the relationship between total fish intake and BMD and between both lean and fatty fish intake and BMD. METHOD: These cross-sectional analyses include 4656 participants in the Hordaland Health Study, a community-based study conducted in 1997–1999. The study includes two birth cohorts of men and women from Hordaland county (Norway) born in 1950–1951 and 1925–1927. BMD was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and dietary intake was obtained from a semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire. RESULTS: The average total fish intake was 33 ± 18 g/1000 kcal and was primarily lean fish. Older women had significantly lower BMD than older men and middle-aged men and women. In older women, total and lean fish intake (50 g/1000 kcal) was significantly and positively associated with BMD also after multivariate adjustments (β-coefficient 0.018, p = 0.017 and 0.026, p = 0.021). CONCLUSION: A high intake of fish, in particular lean fish, was positively associated with BMD in older women. No association between intake of fatty fish and BMD was found in either of the age and sex groups.