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Planting Date Effects on Cotton Lint Yield and Fiber Quality in the U.S. Southern High Plains

Author:
Mauget, Steven, Ulloa, Mauricio, Dever, Jane
Source:
Agriculture 2019 v.9 no.4
ISSN:
2077-0472
Subject:
cold, cultivars, genetics, germination, growing season, heat sums, irrigation, lint cotton, lint yield, micronaire, planting date, temperature, variety trials, vigor, High Plains (United States)
Abstract:
Cotton planting date effects in the U.S. Southern High Plains (SHP) were evaluated based on 11 years of May-planted and June-planted irrigated variety trials. Multiple cultivars planted in each year&rsquo;s trial allowed for the calculation of 153 yield effects and 162 effects in 5 fiber quality parameters. Yield and quality effects were considered in the context of related changes in total growing season degree days (GDD<inf>S</inf>) and total cool hours (CHRS) during a boll formation period 80 to 110 days after planting. May planting increased GDD<inf>S</inf> and significantly increased yields in 8 of 10 years that comparisons could be made. Micronaire and fiber elongation were the most sensitive quality parameters to planting date. June planting resulted in increased CHRS every year and a significantly higher incidence of low micronaire in 7 of 11 years. In 7 of 11 years May planting significantly reduced fiber elongation relative to June planting. Analysis of SHP temperature data show that late-April to early-May planting dates may increase yield and micronaire by maximizing GDD<inf>S</inf> and minimizing CHRS. Although this practice may be optimal to the SHP environment it may also require high-vigor seed and pre-planting irrigation. Adapting genetics to an early planting strategy might include selecting for improved seed vigor and cold germination with acceptable yield and fiber quality traits.
Agid:
6468807