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Aggressiveness and Fumonisins Production of <i>Fusarium Subglutinans</i> and <i>Fusarium Temperatum</i> on Korean Maize Cultivars

Tagele, Setu Bazie, Kim, Sang Woo, Lee, Hyun Gu, Lee, Youn Su
Agronomy 2019 v.9 no.2
Fusarium subglutinans, Zea mays, catechol oxidase, corn, corn stover, crop production, cultivars, disease severity, enzyme activity, fumonisins, fungal diseases of plants, peroxidase, phenols, plant pathogenic fungi, risk assessment, root rot, roots, South Korea
Fusarium root rot and stalk rot are becoming a threat to maize production worldwide. However, there is still limited information about the aggressiveness of Fusarium subglutinans Edwards and Fusarium temperatum and their relationship with fumonisin production. In this study, for the first time, the reaction of seven Korean maize cultivars to F. subglutinans and F. temperatum was investigated. The results showed that among the maize cultivars, Hik-chal and Miheung-chal had the highest Fusarium-induced root rot and stalk rot severity, while De Hack-chal had the lowest disease severity regardless of the Fusarium species. Furthermore, the disease resistant cv. De Hack-chal accumulated low levels of fumonisins (FUM) in the infected stalk, while cv. Hik-chal and Miheung-chal had the highest level of FUM. It is worth to note that, plants infected with F. temperatum had a higher FUM concentration compared to cultivars infected with F. subglutinans. The present study shows a significant correlation between stalk rot ratings and FUM levels and it also presents new information about the potential risk of FUM contamination of maize stalk with F. subglutinans and F. temperatum in South Korea. In addition, enzyme activities like polyphenol oxidase (PPO), peroxidase (POD), and the amount of total phenol content (TPC) were studied in selected susceptible cultivar Miheung-chal and resistant cultivar De Hack-chal. The activity of PPO, POD and concentration of TPC were generally higher in the roots of the resistant cultivar than the susceptible cultivar. Moreover, following inoculation of either F. subglutinans or F. temperatum, there was a significant increase in PPO and POD activity in the roots of both cultivars. Hence, the information provided in this study could be helpful to better understand the mechanisms of resistance response to infection of Fusarium root rot pathogens.