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Camellia Oleifera Seed Extract Mildly Ameliorates Carbon Tetrachloride‐Induced Hepatotoxicity in Rats by Suppressing Inflammation

Ko, Jung, Yeh, Wan‐Ju, Huang, Wen‐Chih, Yang, Hsin‐Yi
Journal of food science 2019 v.84 no.6 pp. 1586-1591
Camellia oleifera, alanine transaminase, antioxidant enzymes, aspartate transaminase, carbon, carbon tetrachloride, cooking fats and oils, cytokines, diet, enzyme activity, fibrosis, functional foods, hepatocytes, hepatoprotective effect, hepatotoxicity, histopathology, hydroxyproline, inflammation, laboratory animals, liver, malondialdehyde, phenolic compounds, polysaccharides, pomace, rats, saponins, seed extracts, seeds, transforming growth factor beta
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of a hot‐water extract of defatted Camellia oleifera seeds (CSE) in carbon tetrachloride (CCl₄)‐induced liver damage in rats. Wistar rats were separated into four groups including the normal (N) and CCl₄ control (C) groups, which are fed a control diet, and the CCL (low‐dose CSE) and CCH (high‐dose CSE) groups, which are fed with a control diet plus different amount of CSE for an 8‐week experimental period. Liver injury in the C, CCL, and CCH groups was induced by injecting CCl₄ (i.p.) twice a week from the 5th week to the end of the study. In CCl₄‐treated rats, the alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST) activities and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration significantly increased compared to the normal group. Lower antioxidative enzyme activities and higher proinflammatory cytokines, transforming growth factor‐β (TGF‐β) and hydroxyproline concentrations in the liver were also found in the CCl₄‐treated group compared to the normal group. In contrast, the administration of CSE alleviated the biochemical and histopathological changes including inflammation, liver cell damage, and fibrosis caused by CCl₄ in rats. Our results indicated that CSE exhibited hepatoprotective effects in CCl₄‐induced liver hepatotoxicity through alleviating hepatic inflammation and fibrosis in rats. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Camellia oleifera are widely used for edible oil production while the defatted seeds pomace is often discarded. We found that extract of C. oleifera pomace containing phenolic compounds, saponins, and polysaccharides showed protective effects chemical‐driven liver damage and, therefore, may be used in further studies and developing functional foods.