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Quantitative Proteomic Analysis of Treated With Punicalagin, a Natural Antibiotic From Pomegranate That Disrupts Iron Homeostasis and Induces SOS

Bret Cooper, Nazrul Islam, Yunfeng Xu, Hunter Beard, Wesley Garrett, Ganyu Gu, Xiangwu Nou
Proteomics 2018 v.18 no.9 pp. 1700461
SOS response (genetics), Staphylococcus aureus, antibacterial properties, antibiotics, bacterial growth, enzymes, food pathogens, gallic acid, gene expression regulation, genetic markers, homeostasis, iron, phytochemicals, pomegranates, proteins, proteome, proteomics, transcription (genetics)
Staphylococcus aureus, a bacterial, food-borne pathogen of humans, can contaminate raw fruits and vegetables. While physical and chemical methods are available to control S. aureus, scientists are searching for inhibitory phytochemicals from plants. One promising compound from pomegranate is punicalagin, a natural antibiotic. To get a broader understanding of the inhibitory effect of punicalagin on S. aureus growth, high-throughput mass spectrometry and quantitative isobaric labeling was used to investigate the proteome of S. aureus after exposure to a sublethal dose of punicalagin. Nearly half of the proteins encoded by the small genome were interrogated, and nearly half of those exhibited significant changes in accumulation. Punicalagin treatment altered the accumulation of proteins and enzymes needed for iron acquisition, and it altered amounts of enzymes for glycolysis, citric acid cycling, protein biosynthesis, and purine and pyrimidine biosynthesis. Punicalagin treatment also induced an SOS cellular response to damaged DNA. Transcriptional comparison of marker genes shows that the punicalagin-induced iron starvation and SOS responses resembles those produced by EDTA and ciprofloxacin. These results show that punicalagin adversely alters bacterial growth by disrupting iron homeostasis and that it induces SOS, possibly through DNA biosynthesis inhibition.