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Soft wheat quality characteristics required for making baking powder biscuits

MA, Fengyun, BAIK, Byung-Kee
Journal of cereal science 2017 v.79 pp. 127-133
biscuits, cluster analysis, dough, gluten, grain protein, hardness, leavening agents, milling, mixing, pasting properties, protein content, regression analysis, seeds, sodium dodecyl sulfate, solvents, starch, viscosity, wheat, wheat flour
Fifteen soft wheat varieties were evaluated for their grain, milling, flour and dough mixing characteristics, as well as their solvent retention capacities (SRCs), pasting properties and suitability for making baking powder biscuits, to identify wheat quality characteristics required for making biscuits. Protein contents of grain and flour, and sodium dodecyl sulfate sedimentation (SDSS) volume, showed positive relationships with biscuit height and shape factor. Kernel hardness, damaged starch content (DSC) and water SRC exhibited negative correlations with biscuit specific volume, while peak and breakdown viscosities, and grain protein content, were positively associated with biscuit specific volume. Stepwise multiple regression analysis indicated that biscuit height and specific volume can be predicted from flour protein content (R2=0.65) and DSC (R2=0.69), respectively; while SDSS volume and flour yield together predict biscuit shape factor (R2=0.83). Cluster analysis based on biscuit height and shape factor indicated that seven soft wheat varieties with flour protein contents greater than 7.9% and SDSS volumes lower than 32.0 mL produce good-quality biscuits with high height, intermediate shape factor, great specific volume and soft crumb. The results of this study suggest that soft wheat flours with high protein contents, weak-to-medium gluten strength and low DSCs are suitable for making desirable-quality biscuits.