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Biochemical and Functional Characterization of Anthocyanidin Reductase (ANR) from Mangifera indica L.
- Tan, Lin, Wang, Mei, Kang, Youfa, Azeem, Farrukh, Zhou, Zhaoxi, Tuo, Decai, María Preciado Rojo, Lina, Khan, Ikhlas, Pan, Zhiqiang
- Molecules 2018 v.23 no.11 pp. 2876
- Mangifera indica, NADH or NADPH oxidoreductases, biochemical pathways, catalytic activity, cyanidin, enzyme activity, enzyme kinetics, flavanols, mangoes, proanthocyanidins, recombinant fusion proteins, substrate specificity
- Mango (Mangifera indica L.) is abundant in proanthocyanidins (PAs) that are important for human health and plant response to abiotic stresses. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in PA biosynthesis still need to be elucidated. Anthocyanidin reductase (ANR) catalyzes a key step in PA biosynthesis. In this study, three ANR cDNAs (MiANR1-1,1-2,1-3) were isolated from mango, and expressed in Escherichia coli. In vitro enzyme assay showed MiANR proteins convert cyanidin to their corresponding flavan-3-ols, such as (-)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin. Despite high amino acid similarity, the recombinant ANR proteins exhibited differences in enzyme kinetics and cosubstrate preference. MiANR1-2 and MiANR1-3 have the same optimum pH of 4.0 in citrate buffer, while the optimum pH for MiANR1-1 is pH 3.0 in phosphate buffer. MiANR1-1 does not use either NADPH or NADH as co-substrate while MiANR1-2/1-3 use only NADPH as co-substrate. MiANR1-2 has the highest Km and Vmax for cyanidin, followed by MiANR1-3 and MiANR1-1. The overexpression of MiANRs in ban mutant reconstructed the biosynthetic pathway of PAs in the seed coat. These data demonstrate MiANRs can form the ANR pathway, leading to the formation of two types of isomeric flavan-3-ols and PAs in mango.