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Impact of seasonality, storage of semen, and sperm head-shape on whole tissue methylation and expression of methylation responsive candidate genes in swine placenta and fetal livers from summer and winter breedings

Lea A. Rempel, Megan M. Krautkramer, John J. Parrish, Jeremy R. Miles
Gamete research 2019 v.86 no.4 pp. 465-475
DNA, boars, breeding, cryopreservation, epigenetics, gene expression, genes, liver, methylation, placenta, pregnancy, semen, spermatozoa, summer, winter
Epigenetics includes the study of external factors that can influence the expression of genes by altering the accessibility of DNA through methylation. To investigate the epigenetic influence of season, sperm head shape, and semen storage on placental and fetal tissues, pregnancies were generated in the summer or winter using boar semen from either least or most sperm head shape change, collected during cool or warm seasons, and stored as cooled‐extended or cryopreserved. The lowest (p < 0.05) ratios of 5‐methylcytosine to 5‐hydroxymethylcytosine activity (5mC:5hmC) in fetal liver were from summer breedings and in placental tissues from winter breedings. The relative expression of placental CDH1 tended (p < 0.10) to be greater in placenta generated from cryopreserved semen or semen collected during cool periods. The relative expression of placental GNAS was affected (p < 0.05) by the interaction of breeding and semen collection seasons. Cryopreserved semen increased (p < 0.05) the placental relative expression of GNAS. Placental MEST and RHOBTB3 tended (p < 0.10) to have a greater relative expression from pregnancies generated using semen collected during cool periods used during winter breedings. Within fetal liver, the relative expression of GNAS and HGF was greater (p < 0.05) from winter breedings. Interaction of winter breedings and least sperm head shape change tended (p < 0.10) to have the greatest fetal liver expression of CDH1. Seasonality of semen collection, reeding, and the effect on sperm head shape change had an influence on the expression of genes with known ifferentially methylated regions or response to methylation activity from embryonic and extraembryonic tissues.