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Influence of feeding thermally peroxidized soybean oil on oxidative status in growing pigs

S. C. Lindblom, N. K. Gabler, R. N. Dilger, Z. F. Olson, Crystal L. Loving, B. J. Kerr
Journal of animal science 2018 v.96 no.2 pp. 545-557
DNA damage, ad libitum feeding, air, aldehydes, antioxidant activity, antioxidants, barrows, blood serum, catalase, crates, enzyme activity, glutathione peroxidase, lipid peroxidation, lipids, liver, liver protein, metabolism, nutritional intervention, oxidative stress, p-anisidine value, peroxide value, soybean oil, superoxide dismutase, swine feeding, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, urine
The objectives of this study were to determine whether feeding thermally processed peroxidized soybean oil (SO) induces markers of oxidative stress and alters antioxidant status in pig tissue, blood, and urine. Fifty-six barrows (25.3 ± 3.3 kg initial BW) were randomly assigned to dietary treatments containing 10% fresh SO (22.5 °C) or thermally processed SO (45 °C for 288 h, 90 °C for 72 h, or 180 °C for 6 h), each with constant air infusion rate of 15 liters/minute. Multiple indices of lipid peroxidation were measured in the SO including peroxide value (2.0, 96, 145, and 4.0 mEq/kg for 22.5, 45, 90, and 180 °C processed SO, respectively) and p-anisidine value (1.2, 8.4, 261, and 174 for 22.5, 45, 90, and 180 °C processed SO, respectively); along with a multitude of aldehydes. Pigs were individually housed and fed ad libitum for 49 d which included a 5 d period in metabolism crates for the collection of urine and serum for measures of oxidative stress. On day 49, pigs were euthanized to determine liver weight and analyze liver-based oxidative stress markers. Oxidative stress markers included serum, urinary, and liver thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), and urinary F2-isoprostanes (ISP) as markers of lipid damage; serum and liver protein carbonyls (PC) as a marker of protein damage; and urinary and liver 8-hydroxy-2’-deoxyguanosine (8-OH-2dG) as a marker of DNA damage. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase activity (CAT) were measured in liver, glutathione peroxidase activity (GPx) was measured in serum and liver, and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) was measured in serum and urine as determinants of antioxidant status. Pigs fed 90 °C SO had greater urinary ISP (P = 0.02), while pigs fed the 45 °C SO had elevated urinary TBARS (P = 0.02) in comparison to other treatment groups. Pigs fed 45 °C and 90 °C SO had increased serum PC concentrations (P = 0.01) and pigs fed 90 °C SO had greater (P = 0.01) liver concentration of 8-OH-2dG compared to pigs fed the other SO treatments. Furthermore, pigs fed 90 °C SO had reduced serum GPx activity in comparison to pigs fed fresh SO (P = 0.01). In addition, pigs fed 180 °C SO had increased liver CAT activity (P = 0.01). Liver GPx and SOD or serum and urinary FRAP were not affected by dietary treatment. These results indicate that dietary peroxidized soybean oil induced oxidative stress by increasing serum PC while diminishing serum GPx, increasing urinary ISP and TBARS, and increasing 8-OH-2dG and CAT in liver.