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Isolation, characterization and strain selection of a Paenibacillus species for use as a probiotic to aid in ruminal methane mitigation, nitrate/nitrite detoxification and food safety
- Elizabeth A. Latham, William E. Pinchak, Julian Trachsel, Heather K. Allen, Todd R. Callaway, David J. Nisbet, Robin C. Anderson
- Bioresource technology 2018 v.263 pp. 358-364
- Campylobacter jejuni, Escherichia coli O157, Paenibacillus, coculture, denitrifying bacteria, fermentation, food safety, in vitro studies, methane, methane production, nitrates, nitrites, nitrogen, probiotics, rumen fluids, rumen microorganisms
- The effects of dietary nitrate and Paenibacillus 79R4 (79R4), a denitrifying bacterium, when co-administered as a probiotic, on methane emissions, nitrate and nitrite-metabolizing capacity and fermentation characteristics were studied in vitro. Mixed populations of rumen microbes inoculated with 79R4 metabolized all levels of nitrite studied after 24 h in vitro incubation. Results from in vitro simulations resulted in up to 2 log₁₀ colony forming unit reductions in E. coli O157:H7 and Campylobacter jejuni when these were co-cultured with 79R4. Nitrogen gas was the predominant final product of nitrite reduction by 79R4. When tested with nitrate-treated incubations of rumen microbes, 79R4 inoculation (provided to achieve 10⁶ cells/mL rumen fluid volume) complemented the ruminal methane-decreasing potential of nitrate (P < 0.05) while concurrently increasing fermentation efficiency and enhancing ruminal nitrate and nitrite-metabolizing activity (P < 0.05) compared to untreated and nitrate only-treated incubations.