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Color characteristics of white salted, alkaline, and egg noodles prepared from Triticum aestivum L. and a soft kernel durum T. turgidum ssp. durum

Alecia M. Kiszonas, Dongyun Ma, Eugene Patrick Fuerst, Jeff Casper, Doug A. Engle, Craig F. Morris
Cereal chemistry 2018 v.95 no.6 pp. 747-759
Triticum aestivum, Triticum turgidum subsp. durum, catechol oxidase, color, discoloration, durum wheat, eggs, flour, hexaploidy, noodles, pH, polyphenols, protein content, seeds, texture
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. ssp. durum) may have advantages over bread wheat in making various styles of noodles due to low polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and high yellow pigment. However, the very hard kernel texture of durum wheat may pose a hindrance to its expanded utilization. The development of soft kernel durum wheat prompted this research into comparing the color of white salted, alkaline, and egg noodle sheets over time and three levels of hydration for one durum and 10 hexaploid wheat varieties. FINDINGS: All noodle sheets darkened over time and “varieties” was a major source of variation. PPO activity was a poor predictor of noodle sheet brightness (L*) at 48 hr for all three styles of noodle. The soft durum variety “Soft Svevo” exhibited about average brightness but tended to have low discoloration (ΔL*) over time. The range in the green‐red axis, a*, was small, and all noodle sheets exhibited a small positive increase with most values near the neutral gray value. All noodle sheets were yellow, with Soft Svevo being markedly more yellow in all three formulations. The alkaline pH increased average yellowness by three units overall, but in Soft Svevo, not at all. In some varieties, a decrease in yellow color occurred from 6 to 48 hr. CONCLUSIONS: The low PPO activity of Soft Svevo did not predict an advantage in white salted, alkaline, and egg noodle sheet brightness over the “best” hexaploid wheat varieties. The reason was not resolved but may be related to marked differences in protein content of the flours. SIGNIFICANCE AND NOVELTY: Soft kernel durum wheat exhibited some advantages over hexaploid wheat, particularly in low discoloration (ΔL*) and high yellow color. In no way was soft durum found to be inferior to hexaploid wheat.