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Modulation of Neuro-Dopamine Homeostasis in Juvenile Female Atlantic Cod (Gadus morhua) Exposed to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Perfluoroalkyl Substances

Khan, Essa A., Bertotto, Luisa B., Dale, Karina, Lille-Langøy, Roger, Yadetie, Fekadu, Karlsen, Odd André, Goksøyr, Anders, Schlenk, Daniel, Arukwe, Augustine
Environmental science & technology 2019 v.53 no.12 pp. 7036-7044
Gadus morhua, benzo(a)pyrene, brain, dopamine, estradiol, females, fluorenes, homeostasis, juveniles, mechanism of action, messenger RNA, metabolites, naphthalene, perfluorocarbons, perfluorooctane sulfonic acid, perfluorooctanoic acid, phenanthrenes, toxicity
The dopaminergic effect of PAH and PFAS mixtures, prepared according to environmentally relevant concentrations, has been studied in juvenile female Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua). Benzo[a]pyrene, dibenzothiophene, fluorene, naphthalene, phenanthrene, and pyrene were used to prepare a PAH mixture, while PFNA, PFOA, PFOS, and PFTrA were used to prepare a PFAS mixture. Cod were injected intraperitoneally twice, with either a low (1×) or high (20×) dose of each compound mixture or their combinations. After 2 weeks of exposure, levels of plasma 17β-estradiol (E2) were significantly elevated in high PAH/high PFAS treated group. Brain dopamine/metabolite ratios (DOPAC/dopamine and HVA+DOPAC/dopamine) changed with E2 plasma levels, except for high PAH/low PFAS and low PAH/high PFAS treated groups. On the transcript levels, th mRNA inversely correlated with dopamine/metabolite ratios and gnrh2 mRNA levels. Respective decreases and increases of drd1 and drd2a after exposure to the high PAH dose were observed. Specifically, high PFAS exposure decreased both drds, leading to high plasma E2 concentrations. Other studied end points suggest that these compounds, at different doses and combinations, have different toxicity threshold and modes of action. These effects indicate potential alterations in the feedback signaling processes within the dopaminergic pathway by these contaminant mixtures.