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Basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor Twist1 is a novel regulator of anterior gradient protein 2 homolog (AGR2) in breast cancer

Jung, Seok Yun, Yun, Jisoo, Kim, Seong Jang, Kang, Songhwa, Kim, Da Yeon, Kim, Yeon Ju, Park, Ji Hye, Jang, Woong Bi, Ji, Seung Taek, Ha, Jong Seong, Hong Van, Le Thi, Truong Giang, Ly Thanh, Rethineswaran, Vinoth Kumar, Kim, Dong Hwan, Song, Parkyong, Kwon, Sang-Mo
Biochemical and biophysical research communications 2019 v.516 no.1 pp. 149-156
anaerobic conditions, breast neoplasms, disulfides, endoplasmic reticulum, hypoxia-inducible factor 1, isomerases, lungs, neoplasm cells, pancreas, therapeutics
Anterior gradient protein 2 homolog (AGR2) belongs to the disulfide isomerase family of endoplasmic reticulum proteins. Itis overexpressed in several types of solid tumors, including tumors of the prostate, lung, and pancreas. However, the role of AGR2 in breast cancer and the regulatory mechanisms underlying AGR2 protein expressionare not fullyunderstood. We demonstrated that AGR2 levels are increased under hypoxic conditions and in breast cancer tumors. Mechanistically, Twist1 binds to, and activates the AGR2 promoter via an E-box sequence. Under hypoxic conditions, the increased expression of ARG2 is attenuated when Twist1 levels are reduced by shRNA. Conversely, Twist1 overexpression fully reverses decreased AGR2 levels upon HIF-1α knockdown. Notably, AGR2 is required for Twist1-induced proliferation, migration, and invasion of breast cancer cells. Collectively, these findings extend our understanding of AGR2 regulation in breast cancer and may contribute to development of Twist1-AGR2 targeting therapeutics for breast cancer.