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Recycling of viscose yarn waste through one-step extraction of nanocellulose
- Prado, Karen S., Gonzales, Danielle, Spinacé, Márcia A.S.
- International journal of biological macromolecules 2019 v.136 pp. 729-737
- Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy, cellulose, crystal structure, emulsions, fabrics, hydrolysis, manufacturing, nanoparticles, oils, pollution, raw materials, recycling, textile industry, thermogravimetry, transmission electron microscopy, value added, viscose, wastes, yarns
- Textile manufacturing industries generate large amounts of viscose yarn waste (VW) that causes serious environmental pollution. In this study, VW was used as raw material to successfully extract nanocellulose (NC) in a facile one-step extraction process, without any pretreatment. Different hydrolysis reaction times (5–60 min) were employed, and the extracted material was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning and transmission electron microscopies, atomic force microscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis. Interestingly, it was possible to obtain NC in only 5 min of reaction without any pretreatment and with an increase of 50% in the crystallinity, which was attributed to the pretreatments VW undergone in textile industry that swell cellulose chains and make them more accessible to further reactions. The higher crystallinity index was observed after 30 min of reaction (87%), and through microscopy, it was verified that the morphology of the VW was completely changed to irregular nanoparticles with average size of 42 nm. The obtained NC showed interesting properties to be used in several potential applications, including stabilization of oil/water Pickering emulsions. These results indicate that VW is an attractive source to obtain NC, making the extraction of NC from VW a value-added alternative to recycle this textile waste.