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Insight into the tolerance, biochemical and antioxidative response in three moss species on exposure to BDE-47 and BDE-209

Zhao, Jianhua, Zhang, Meng, Zhang, Wei, Liu, Fuwen, Huang, Kai, Lin, Kuangfei
Ecotoxicology and environmental safety 2019 v.181 pp. 445-454
Hypnum, Plagiomnium cuspidatum, Thuidium, chlorophyll, environmental assessment, lipid peroxidation, malondialdehyde, mosses and liverworts, oxidative stress, peroxidase, reactive oxygen species, risk assessment, superoxide dismutase, toxicity
Responses of Hypnum plumaeforme, Thuidium cymbifolium, and Plagiomnium cuspidatum to short-term (96 h) BDE-47 and BDE-209(0, 0.005, 0.05, 0.5, and 5 μM, respectively) stress were investigated. Both BDE-47 and BDE-209 increased the lipid peroxidation in the three moss species, malondialdehyde (MDA) content increased with the elevated concentration of contaminants, and followed the order: P. cuspidatum > H. plumaeforme > T. cymbifolium on exposure to different concentrations. BDE-47 and BDE-209 stimulated the superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) activity of the three moss species, indicating that they played an important role in preventing oxidative stress. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation was positively correlated with the level of contaminants. The response of anti-oxidative enzymes to BDE-47 and BDE-209 stress differed among the three species. At 5 μM BDE-47 and BDE-209 treatment, the chlorophyll content of T. cymbifolium was even a little higher than the control group. Proline played an important role for the scavenging of ROS in P. cuspidatum and T. cymbifolium. In summary, BDE-47 was more toxic to the three moss species than BDE-209. P. cuspidatum was the most sensitive and T. cymbifolium was the most tolerant species to BDE-47 and BDE-209 stress. The strong resistance and tolerance of T. cymbifolium, combined with sensitive/moderate anti-oxidative response could elucidate its potential use as bio-indicator in the ecological risk assessment of BDE-47 and BDE-209 contamination.