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Acute oral toxicity test and assessment of combined toxicity of cadmium and aflatoxin B1 in kunming mice

Zhao, Qin, Yang, Zhao-Si, Cao, San-Jie, Chang, Yung-Fu, Cao, Yu-Qin, Li, Jia-Bing, Yao, Zi-Xuan, Wen, Yi-Ping, Huang, Xiao-Bo, Wu, Rui, Yan, Qi-Gui, Huang, Yong, Ma, Xiao-Ping, Han, Xin-Feng, Wu, Yinglong
Food and chemical toxicology 2019 v.131 pp. 110577
acute oral toxicity, additive effect, aflatoxin B1, blood, cadmium, cadmium chloride, females, histopathology, lethal dose 50, males, mice, pollutants, risk, toxicity testing
Cadmium and aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) are both common and widespread pollutants in food and feed. There are several reports on toxicity induced by Cadmium or AFB1 alone, but few address the toxicity caused by co-exposure to the two substances. In this study, 42 female and 42 male Kunming (KM) mice were divided into seven groups to test the acute oral toxicity of CdCl2 and AFB1, using Karber's method. The combined toxicity was assessed using the Keplinger evaluation system. Acute toxicity symptoms, deaths, and body and organ weights were evaluated, and hematological, blood biochemical, and histopathological analyses were conducted. The results revealed the following median lethal doses (LD50): LD50(Female KM mice) = 62.56 mg/kg; LD50(Male KM mice) = 48.79 mg/kg; LD50(KM mice)=55.27 mg/kg. The combined toxicity of AFB1 and CdCl2 showed an additive effect in mice, and an increase in the mixed dose of AFB1 and CdCl2 resulted in greater toxicity. These results demonstrated that the combined toxicity of AFB1 and CdCl2 was greater than the toxicities of the individual components in mice; thus, this may cause particular challenges when addressing these hazards in food and feed and the associated risk to human and animal health.