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Pyrroloquinoline quinine ameliorates doxorubicin-induced autophagy-dependent apoptosis via lysosomal-mitochondrial axis in vascular endothelial cells

Jiang, Chunteng, Jiang, Liping, Li, Qiannan, Liu, Xiaofang, Zhang, Tianjiao, Yang, Guang, Zhang, Cong, Wang, Ningning, Sun, Xiance, Jiang, Lijie
Toxicology 2019 v.425 pp. 152238
apoptosis, autophagy, cardiotoxicity, caspase-3, caspase-9, cathepsin D, cytochrome c, doxorubicin, hematologic diseases, human umbilical vein endothelial cells, membrane permeability, membrane potential, mitochondria, neoplasms, pathogenesis, quinine
The cardiotoxicity of doxorubicin (DOX) limits its clinical use in the treatment of a variety of solid tumors and malignant hematologic disease. However, the mechanism by which it causes cardiotoxicity is not fully understood. Apoptosis has been regarded as one of mechanisms underlying the cardiotoxic effects of DOX. In our study, we found that treatment of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) with DOX induced autophagy and apoptosis in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Treatment with DOX induced autophagy at earlier time (3 h), then lysosomal membrane permeabilization (LMP) altered after treatment for 12 h which followed by the release of cathepsin D (CTSD). Lysosome-associated membrane proteins-1 and -2 (LAMP1 and LAMP2) were decreased in DOX-treated cells. Additionally, DOX induced the collapse of mitochondrial transmembrane potential, reduction of translocase of the outer mitochondrial membrane-20 (TOM-20), and release of cytochrome c. Furthermore, autophagy inhibitor 3-MA relieved DOX-induced apoptosis as assessed by the expression of cleaved caspase-3, cleaved caspase-9 and TUNEL assay. CTSD inhibitor, pepstatin A, upregulated TOM-20 and suppressed the mitochondria release of cytochrome c as well as apoptosis under DOX stress. Pyrroloquinoline quinine (PQQ), a new B vitamin, ameliorated aforementioned phenomenon. In conclusion, our results suggested that DOX-induced apoptosis was autophagy-dependent via lysosomal-mitochondrial axis. PQQ had an ability to protect cell from autophagy-dependent apoptosis induced by DOX via lysosomal-mitochondrial axis to some extent. This study provided new mechanistic insight toward understanding the pathogenesis of DOX-induced cardiotoxicity and the protection effect of PQQ.