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Study on distributed lithium-ion power battery grouping scheme for efficiency and consistency improvement

Bai, Xiwei, Tan, Jie, Wang, Xuelei, Wang, Lianjing, Liu, Chengbao, Shi, Liyong, Sun, Wei
Journal of cleaner production 2019 v.233 pp. 429-445
algorithms, batteries, computers, data collection, decision making, durability, electric potential difference, manufacturing, screening, time series analysis
The service life, safety, and capacity of lithium-ion power battery packs relies heavily on the consistency among battery cells. Grouping is an effective procedure to improve consistency by screening cells with similar performance and assembling them into an identical group. Battery grouping can be achieved via clustering techniques based on characteristics like static capacity, internal resistance etc. The dynamic characteristics-based method considers the battery performance during the entire charging-discharging process and has become one of the most promising grouping method. However, it suffers from high computational complexity. Nowadays, facing stricter quality standards and the increasing demand for battery products, existing dynamic characteristics-based grouping scheme cannot meet the performance and time requirement of the modern high-quality, large-scale battery manufacturing. In this paper, a novel grouping scheme based on distributed time-series clustering is proposed to match the need of both efficiency and consistency improvement. The proposed scheme designs an effective “cloud-edge” mode and utilizes an innovative two-stage trick to achieve parallel processing, which split the original centralized clustering approach into local clustering and global merging. The host computers for data acquisition and battery control are regarded as distributed edge computing resources to implement local clustering on the acquired battery discharging voltage sequence set. Cluster contours are extracted via a denoising contour extraction algorithm considering the irregularity of the discharging voltage sequences. The results of the above preliminary processing are uploaded to a cloud data center. A pragmatic merging scheme based on an integrated merging indicator is established to solve the decision-making problem of global merging on the cloud data center. The final global cluster set is transmitted back to host computers to instruct cell unloading operation. Experimental results based on real battery discharging voltage sequence data suggest that the proposed scheme can reduce the inconsistency rate by 43.56% and the time cost by 92.87%. The computing efficiency and resource utilization rate of the distributed scheme is much higher than the centralized scheme. Meanwhile, compared with three existing advanced grouping approaches, our scheme perform the best in reducing inconsistency rate.