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Bioactive components, antioxidative and anti‐inflammatory properties (on RAW 264.7 macrophage cells) of soaked and germinated purple rice extracts

Owolabi, Iyiola Oluwakemi, Chakree, Korawan, Takahashi Yupanqui, Chutha
International journal of food science & technology 2019 v.54 no.7 pp. 2374-2386
anthocyanins, anti-inflammatory activity, antioxidant activity, bioactive compounds, carotenoids, catechin, cell proliferation, gallic acid, gamma-aminobutyric acid, germination, inhibitory concentration 50, lipopolysaccharides, macrophages, nitric oxide, p-coumaric acid, rice, rutin, soaking
The bioactive components, antioxidative properties and phenolic profile of Thai purple rice after 24 h soaking and 36 h germination periods were investigated. Anti‐inflammatory properties of the rice extracts were also evaluated on macrophage cells, stimulated with Lipopolysaccharide. These conditions significantly increased the bioactive components and antioxidative properties. Total anthocyanin contents, total carotenoid contents and gamma‐aminobutyric acid were increased more than twofold in the soaked sample. Protocatechuic, caffeic, p‐coumaric, ferullic, rutin trihydrate, catechin and Trans‐cinnamic acids were detected in the extracts. Gallic acid was only identified after soaking and germination. All the extracts led to cell proliferation and inhibited nitric oxide (NO) production. Twenty‐four hour soaking exhibited highest bioactive compounds, antioxidative properties and showed greater NO inhibitory effects with IC₅₀ of 234.00 ± 0.01 μg mL⁻¹. In addition to established information on germination, soaking greatly improved the bioactive components and anti‐inflammatory properties of the rice variety.