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Behavior of Heat-Denatured Whey: Buttermilk Protein Aggregates during the Yogurt-Making Process and Their Influence on Set-Type Yogurt Properties

Saffon, Maxime, Richard, Véronique, Jiménez-Flores, Rafael, Gauthier, Sylvie F., Britten, Michel, Pouliot, Yves
Foods 2013 v.2 no.4 pp. 444-459
buttermilk, confocal laser scanning microscopy, freeze drying, gels, heat, milk proteins, pH, protein aggregates, protein concentrates, skim milk, texture, thiols, total solids, water holding capacity, whey, yogurt
The objective of this study was to assess the impact of using heat-denatured whey:buttermilk protein aggregate in acid-set type yogurt production. Whey and buttermilk (25:75) protein concentrate was adjusted to pH 4.6, heated at 90 °C for 5 min, homogenized and freeze-dried. Set-type yogurts were prepared from skim milk standardized to 15% (w/v) total solids and 4.2% (w/v) protein using different levels of powdered skim milk or freeze-dried protein aggregate. The use of the protein aggregate significantly modified yogurt texture, but did not affect the water-holding capacity of the gel. Confocal laser-scanning microscope images showed the presence of large particles in milk enriched with protein aggregate, which directly affected the homogeneity of the clusters within the protein matrix. Thiol groups were freed during heating of the protein aggregate suspended in water, suggesting that the aggregates could interact with milk proteins during heating.