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Composition and Statistical Analysis of Biophenols in Apulian Italian EVOOs

Ragusa, Andrea, Centonze, Carla, Grasso, Maria Elena, Latronico, Maria Francesca, Mastrangelo, Pier Francesco, Fanizzi, Francesco Paolo, Maffia, Michele
Foods 2017 v.6 no.10
Mediterranean diet, Olea europaea, alpha-tocopherol, antioxidant activity, cultivars, dietary supplements, discriminant analysis, extra-virgin olive oil, harvesting, high performance liquid chromatography, least squares, lignans, luteolin, metabolites, milling, principal component analysis, Italy
Extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO) is among the basic constituents of the Mediterranean diet. Its nutraceutical properties are due mainly, but not only, to a plethora of molecules with antioxidant activity known as biophenols. In this article, several biophenols were measured in EVOOs from South Apulia, Italy. Hydroxytyrosol, tyrosol and their conjugated structures to elenolic acid in different forms were identified and quantified by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) together with lignans, luteolin and α-tocopherol. The concentration of the analyzed metabolites was quite high in all the cultivars studied, but it was still possible to discriminate them through multivariate statistical analysis (MVA). Furthermore, principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal partial least-squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) were also exploited for determining variances among samples depending on the interval time between harvesting and milling, on the age of the olive trees, and on the area where the olive trees were grown.