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Optimization of Ultrasonic-Assisted Extraction of Major Phenolic Compounds from Olive Leaves (<i>Olea europaea</i> L.) Using Response Surface Methodology
- Giacometti, Jasminka, Žauhar, Gordana, Žuvić, Marta
- Foods 2018 v.7 no.9
- Olea europaea, leaves, models, oleuropein, olives, response surface methodology, sonication, temperature, ultra-performance liquid chromatography, ultrasonic treatment, ultrasonics, verbascoside
- The ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) of oleuropein (OLE), verbascoside (VER), and luteolin-4′-O-glucoside (L4OG), as the major phenolics from olive leaves, was optimized using response surface methodology (RSM). A Box–Behnken design (BBD) was used to monitor the effect of different modes of ultrasound operation (pulsed and continuous), liquid–solid (L–S) ratio, and sonication time on each phenolic yield. The yield of UAE and conventional solid extraction (CSE) was determined after performing ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography with a diode-array detector (UHPLC-DAD) analysis on the extracts. The results suggested that, under optimal conditions, the concentrations of OLE, VER, and L4OG were 13.386, 0.363, and 0.527 mg/g of dry powdered olive leaves (DPOL), respectively. Verification of experiments was carried out under the modified optimal conditions and the relative errors between the predicted and experimental values were dependent on the examined phenolic compound (OLE 8.63%, VER 11.3%, and L4OG 22.48%). In comparison with CSE, UAE improved the yields of OLE, VER, and L4OG (32.6%, 41.8%, and 47.5%, respectively, after 1 min) at a temperature of 60 °C, an L–S ratio of 15 (v/w), and in the continuous mode of UAE. We demonstrated that the UAE technique is an efficient method for enhancing yields of OLE, VER, and L4OG in olive-leaf extracts, while the chosen model was adequate to optimize the extraction of major phenolic compounds from olive leaves.