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Anthocyanin Consumption and Risk of Colorectal Cancer: A Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies

Wang, Xin, Yang, De-Yi, Yang, Liu-Qing, Zhao, Wen-Zhi, Cai, Li-Ya, Shi, Han-Ping
Journal of the American College of Nutrition 2019 v.38 no.5 pp. 470-477
anthocyanidins, anthocyanins, antioxidant activity, apoptosis, autophagy, case-control studies, cell cycle, colon, colorectal neoplasms, computer software, confidence interval, databases, dose response, electrons, men, meta-analysis, observational studies, odds ratio, senescence (aging), vacuoles
This meta-analysis aimed to summarize the association between anthocyanin consumption and the risk of colorectal cancer. All relative articles were located on online databases, including PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library as of June 11, 2018. Risk ratios (RRs) or odds ratio and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated through the STATA 12.0 software package. A total of seven studies were included in the meta-analysis. A significant inverse association was found between total anthocyanin consumption and colorectal cancer risk (RR = 0.78; 95% CI, 0.64–0.95). Likewise, there was significant evidence of a relationship between anthocyanin intake and colorectal cancer in the colon site (RR = 0.81; 95% CI, 0.71–0.92); men (RR = 0.88; 95% CI, 0.81–0.95), and case-control studies (RR = 0.69; 95% CI, 0.60–0.78). A dose–response relationship was not found in this meta-analysis. The Grades of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation quality in our study was very low. This meta-analysis indicates that anthocyanin consumption is inversely associated with the risk of colorectal cancer. Anthocyanins may play an active role in the prevention of colorectal cancer. Key teaching points:Some epidemiological studies found an inverse correlation between the high consumption of anthocyanins and low risk of colorectal cancer. Because of this structure, anthocyanins/anthocyanidins have a powerful capability of donating electrons, which can be characterized as antioxidant properties. Anthocyanins can also inhibit colon cancer by interfering in the cell cycle and inducing the effect of anti-proliferation and apoptosis. The formation of cytoplasmic vacuoles in cells also indicates that anthocyanins may induce autophagy. From the findings of nonrandomized controlled trials, anthocyanins may play an active role in the prevention of colorectal cancer.