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Bacterial diversity and metabolite profiles of curd prepared by natural fermentation of raw milk and back sloping of boiled milk

Joishy, Tulsi K., Dehingia, Madhusmita, Khan, Mojibur R.
World journal of microbiology & biotechnology 2019 v.35 no.7 pp. 102
Acetobacter, Acinetobacter, Chryseobacterium, Enterococcus, Klebsiella, Kocuria, Lactobacillus brevis, Lactococcus, Leuconostoc, Macrococcus, Oscillospira, Phascolarctobacterium, Prevotella, Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, ascorbic acid, dodecanoic acid, farms, fermentation, gas chromatography, human health, lactic acid bacteria, mass spectrometry, metabolites, metabolomics, milk, palmitic acid, probiotics, raw milk, taste, texture, India
Preparation of curd vary worldwide due to which its taste, texture and impact on human health also differ. In Assam, curd prepared from raw milk (RMC) is preferred over curd prepared from boiled milk (BMC), a tradition believed to have originated from the Mongoloid customs. Microbial diversity of raw milk (RM), boiled milk (BM), RMC and BMC collected from three farms were investigated by culture dependent and independent techniques. Additionally, metabolite profiles of RMC and BMC were studied by gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy. A total of 59 bacterial isolates were identified from the four different dairy products. In RM, lactic acid bacteria such as Lactococcus, Enterococcus, Lactobacillus and Leuconostoc were obtained along with the environmental bacteria like Bacillus, Staphylococcus, Acetobacter, Chryseobacterium, Streptococcus, Acinetobacter, Kocuria, Klebsiella and Macrococcus. Additionally, Prevotella, Oscillospira, Phascolarctobacterium and Akkermansia were also detected in BM by culture independent technique. In RMC and BMC, Lactococcus, Leuconostoc and Lactobacillus were prevalent. RM and RMC shared Enterococcus, Lactococcus, Streptococcus and Acinetobacter as common bacterial genera. However, no bacterial genus was common in BM and BMC. The correlation analysis revealed that Lactobacillus was negatively correlated to other bacterial genera. Oligotyping analysis revealed that Lactobacillus brevis and L.fermentum were abundant in RMC and BMC, respectively. In metabolomic study, ascorbic acid, dodecanoic acid and hexadecanoic acid were found to be significantly higher in RMC. Presence of different types of probiotics in these curds samples opens a new avenue to understand their effects on human health.