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Assessment of Ready-to-Use Freeze-dried Immobilized Biocatalysts as Innovative Starter Cultures in Sourdough Bread Making

Mantzourani, Ioanna, Terpou, Antonia, Alexopoulos, Athanasios, Bezirtzoglou, Eugenia, Plessas, Stavros
Foods 2019 v.8 no.1
Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, Lactobacillus paracasei, acetic acid, acidity, biocatalysts, breadmaking, cheese whey, cryoprotectants, freeze drying, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, lactic acid, microorganisms, sodium hydroxide, sourdough bread, spoilage, starter cultures, volatile compounds, wheat bran
In the present study the effect of innovative biocatalysts as starter cultures in sourdough bread making was explored. The biocatalysts consisted of Lactobacillus paracasei K5 and Lactobacillus bulgaricus ATCC 11842 (in single and mixed form), immobilized on delignified wheat bran (DWB), and freeze dried without cryoprotectants. The parameters monitored were physicochemical characteristics, mold and rope spoilage appearance, volatile composition, and organoleptic characteristics. Results obtained showed that both biocatalysts exhibit good fermentative activity. However, the best results were achieved when freeze-dried immobilized L. paracasei K5 was applied as a single culture. In particular, the produced bread had a higher acidity (8.67 mL 0.1 N NaOH) and higher organic load (2.90 g/kg lactic acid and 1.11 g/kg acetic acid). This outcome was the main reason why this bread was preserved more regarding mold spoilage (14 days) and rope spoilage (12 days), respectively. In addition, the employment of freeze-dried immobilized L. paracasei K5 led to bread with better aromatic profile in terms of concentrations and number of volatile compounds produced as gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis proved. Finally, no significant differences were observed through sensorial tests. Last but not least, it should be highlighted that the used microorganisms were cultured in cheese whey, minimizing the cost of the proposed biotechnological procedure.