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Optimization of Uruset Apple Vinegar Production Using Response Surface Methodology for the Enhanced Extraction of Bioactive Substances
- Yıkmış, Seydi
- Foods 2019 v.8 no.3
- 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, antioxidant activity, apples, bioactive compounds, bioavailability, color, flavonoids, pasteurization, response surface methodology, ultrasonic treatment, ultrasonics, vinegars
- In this study, the aim is to produce non-thermal vinegar by using red Uruset apples, which have high bioavailability among apple varieties. For this purpose, Uruset apple vinegar was produced and ultrasound at different times (2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 min) and different amplitudes (40%, 50%, 60%, 70%, and 80%); in addition, a 26 kHz frequency was applied to the samples. Total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), total antioxidant capacity (1,1-diphenyl- 2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and cupric reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC)), and color values were evaluated for the optimization of process conditions. At the same time, the differences between commercial apple vinegar (CV), pasteurized Uruset apple vinegar (PV), and a control (C) of untreated apple vinegar were investigated. Ultrasound treatment of Uruset apple vinegar was more successful for the enrichment of bioactive substances than the other samples. At the end of the study, the maximal optimization values for Uruset apple vinegar were 7.4 min and 62.2 amplitude. At the end of optimization, CUPRAC (0.69 mg TEAC/mL), DPPH (0.49 mg TEAC/mL), total flavonoid content (46.95 mg CE/L), and total phenolic content (124.25 mg GAE/L) were determined. As a result, ultrasound technology was successfully used for Uruset apple vinegar production.