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Xanthan Gum Capped ZnO Microstars as a Promising Dietary Zinc Supplementation

Ebrahiminezhad, Alireza, Moeeni, Fatemeh, Taghizadeh, Seyedeh-Masoumeh, Seifan, Mostafa, Bautista, Christine, Novin, Donya, Ghasemi, Younes, Berenjian, Aydin
Foods 2019 v.8 no.3
Bacillus licheniformis, Bacillus sphaericus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, antimicrobial properties, bacteria, biocompatibility, dietary mineral supplements, food fortification, gastrointestinal system, human health, microstructure, nanoparticles, nutrient deficiencies, particle size, pharmaceutical industry, stabilizers, toxicity, transmission electron microscopy, xanthan gum, zinc, zinc oxide
Zinc is one of the essential trace elements, and plays an important role in human health. Severe zinc deficiency can negatively affect organs such as the epidermal, immune, central nervous, gastrointestinal, skeletal, and reproductive systems. In this study, we offered a novel biocompatible xanthan gum capped zinc oxide (ZnO) microstar as a potential dietary zinc supplementation for food fortification. Xanthan gum (XG) is a commercially important extracellular polysaccharide that is widely used in diverse fields such as the food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries, due to its nontoxic and biocompatible properties. In this work, for the first time, we reported a green procedure for the synthesis of ZnO microstars using XG, as the stabilizing agent, without using any synthetic or toxic reagent. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to study the structure, morphology, and size of the synthesized ZnO structures. The results showed that the synthesized structures were both hexagonal phase and starlike, with an average particle size of 358 nm. The effect of different dosages of XG-capped ZnO nanoparticles (1–9 mM) against Gram-negative (Escherichia coli) and Gram-positive (Bacillus licheniformis, Bacillus subtilis, and Bacillus sphaericus) bacteria were also investigated. Based on the results, the fabricated XG-capped ZnO microstars showed a high level of biocompatibility with no antimicrobial effect against the tested microorganisms. The data suggested the potential of newly produced ZnO microstructures for a range of applications in dietary supplementation and food fortification.