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Noncovalent Functionalization of 2D Black Phosphorus with Fluorescent Boronic Derivatives of Pyrene for Probing and Modulating the Interaction with Molecular Oxygen

Bolognesi, Margherita, Moschetto, Salvatore, Trapani, Mariachiara, Prescimone, Federico, Ferroni, Claudia, Manca, Gabriele, Ienco, Andrea, Borsacchi, Silvia, Caporali, Maria, Muccini, Michele, Peruzzini, Maurizio, Serrano-Ruiz, Manuel, Calucci, Lucia, Castriciano, Maria Angela, Toffanin, Stefano
ACS applied materials & interfaces 2019 v.11 no.25 pp. 22637-22647
Raman spectroscopy, air, density functional theory, fluorescence, fluorescence emission spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, organic matter, oxidation, oxygen, phosphorus, photons
We studied the chemical–physical nature of interactions involved in the formation of adducts of two-dimensional black phosphorus (2D BP) with organoboron derivatives of a conjugated fluorescent molecule (pyrene). Time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy showed a stabilization effect of 2D BP on all derivatives, in particular for the adducts endowed with the boronic functionalities. Also, a stronger modulation of the fluorescence decay with oxygen was registered for one of the adducts compared to the corresponding organoboron derivative alone. Nuclear magnetic resonance experiments in suspension and density functional theory simulations confirmed that only noncovalent interactions were involved in the formation of the adducts. The energetic gain in their formation arises from the interaction of P atoms with both C atoms of the pyrene core and the B atom of the boronic functionalities, with a stronger contribution from the ester with respect to the acid one. The interaction results in the lowering of the band gap of 2D BP by around 0.10 eV. Furthermore, we demonstrated through Raman spectroscopy an increased stability toward oxidation in air of 2D BP in the adducts in the solid state (more than 6 months). The modification of the electronic structure at the interface between 2D BP and a conjugated organic molecule through noncovalent stabilizing interactions mediated by the B atom is particularly appealing in view of creating heterojunctions for optoelectronic, photonic, and chemical sensing applications.