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Compositional differences between conventional Chinese and genetically modified Roundup Ready soybeans

Xia, Yimiao, Chen, Fusheng, Liu, Kunlun, Zhang, Lifen, Duan, Xiaojie, Zhang, Xin, Zhu, Zhenya
Crop & pasture science 2019 v.70 no.6 pp. 526-534
Glycine max, amino acid composition, carbohydrate content, carbohydrates, crude fat, crude fiber, crude protein, databases, essential amino acids, genotype, glyphosate, glyphosate resistance, histidine, manufacturing, markets, methionine, nutritive value, oils, oleic acid, principal component analysis, proline, protein intake, protein products, safety assessment, soybeans, transgenic plants, tryptophan, tyrosine, China
Glyphosate-tolerant genetically modified (GM) soybeans (Glycine max (L.) Merr.), known commercially as Roundup Ready soybeans, dominate oil consumption and are partly used for protein intake in China. Chemical composition of soybean seed determines its nutritional value, its processing suitability for various protein products, and market decisions. We conducted a compositional comparison of eight GM and 16 conventional Chinese representative soybean varieties. Crude protein, crude fat, moisture, ash, carbohydrate, crude fibre, amino acid and fatty acid contents of the different soybean genotypes were compared and analysed. The GM soybeans had the highest oil concentration but poorer quality, whereas conventional soybeans from the Huanghuaihai region of China showed significantly higher protein, total amino acid, essential amino acid and oleic acid contents, and lower n-6 : n-3 ratio and carbohydrate content, which suggested superior nutritional value. Principal component analysis indicated that protein, carbohydrates and amino acids (except tryptophan, methionine, tyrosine, histidine and proline) contributed most to distinguishing GM soybeans from conventional Chinese soybeans. Differences among the GM and conventional soybeans collected from two major producing regions in China can help to guide manufacturing processes and market decisions with respect to soybeans. High protein and amino acid content in conventional Chinese soybeans mean the potential to expand and improve the International Life Sciences Institute Crop Composition Database used for safety assessment of GM soybean.