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Polymerase chain reaction assay based on ratA gene allows differentiation between Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Gallinarum biovars Gallinarum and Pullorum

Batista, Diego Felipe Alves, de Freitas Neto, Oliveiro Caetano, Lopes, Priscila Diniz, de Almeida, Adriana Maria, Barrow, Paul Andrew, Berchieri, Angelo
Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Gallinarum, Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Pullorum, developed countries, developing countries, epidemiology, fowl typhoid, genes, polymerase chain reaction, poultry, pullorum disease, serotypes
Salmonella Pullorum and Salmonella Gallinarum are classified as biovars of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Gallinarum. These salmonellae are the causative agents of Pullorum disease and fowl typhoid, respectively, and are widely distributed throughout the world. Although many developed countries have eradicated these diseases from commercial poultry, they are still the cause of significant economic loss in developing countries. When serovar Gallinarum is isolated, it is difficult to immediately differentiate between biovars because they are antigenically identical by serotyping. However, they cause distinct diseases with different epidemiology, and therefore it is important to differentiate them. This may be done biochemically but takes 2 to 3 days. In the present study, S. Pullorum and S. Gallinarum whole genomes were compared, and 1 genomic region of difference, which is part of the ratA gene, was chosen as a molecular marker for a polymerase chain reaction assay to differentiate rapidly between these organisms. In all, 26 strains of S. Gallinarum and 17 S. Pullorum strains were tested and successfully differentiated by the assay.